C3 Inquiry focuses on the following disciplinary concepts and tools for history:

Sourcing and Evidence

  • Students should be able to identify the author, intended audience, historical situation or date, and type of source

Primary Source Analysis—sourcing, contextualizing, jigsaw analysis

Change, Continuity, and Context

  • Students should be able to analyze connections among events and analyze how events were shaped by time and place

Continuity and Change Worksheet


  • Students should be able to analyze cause and effects and distinguish between long-term causation and triggering events

Multiple Perspectives

  • Students understand that multiple factors can influence a person’s perspective, that different people can have differing perspectives on the same events, that perspectives can change over time, and that perspectives in the present can shape how historians interpret the past.

Multiple Perspectives Circle of Viewpoints Worksheet

Click here for a deeper exploration of historical thinking in the elementary years